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Aim: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is a neglected tropical parasitic infection affecting mostly women of child bearing age, especially those of low socio-economic status and those that have poor hygiene lifestyle. Unfortunately, the traditional wet mount microscopy routinely used in the rural health care settings, for the detection of this parasite from clinical specimen, hardly detect this parasite (false negative), thus making the diagnosis of trichomoniasis a huge challenge in the rural settings. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of Trichomonas vaginalis among adult females in Bori, a rural resource-poor setting in Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Nigeria using modified Parasite Concentration-Giemsa staining technique.
Study Design: This was a randomized study of adult females attending Government Health Centers in the Ogoni areas of Rivers State, Nigeria between April and August, 2018.
Methodology: A total of five hundred (500) women, grouped into married (128) and unmarried (372), were enrolled in this study. A structured questionnaire was also administered to the participants for demographic data. Using sterile specula, high vaginal swab samples were collected and analyzed using the wet mount preparation and 10% Giemsa staining of centrifuged specimens.
Results: Results obtained showed that the prevalence rate was 1.8% (9 out of 500 subjects). The sensitivity of wet mount and Giemsa stain methods were 56.2% and 100% respectively while their specificity were 100% and 98.2% respectively. While wet mount detected 0.4%, Giemsa staining method detected 1.8%. Two (1.6%) out of 128 married women examined had T. vaginalis while 7 (1.9%) out of 372 unmarried women examined had T. vaginalis.
Conclusion: Although study recorded a low prevalence, Trichomonas vaginalis infections, exists in rural areas of Rivers State and therefore a source of concern because of its attendant morbidities. Early detection using improved diagnostic methods and in this case, the relatively inexpensive Parasite Concentration-Giemsa staining method, will improve management within the rural setting. A meta screening of more rural communities is advocated.